OverviewBenign prostatic hyperplasia is also known as enlargement of the prostate gland. It is a common medical condition that happens as men grow older, usually 24 % risk for age between age 40-64 and 40% risk if older.
Signs and SymptomsFrequent need to urinate, Urge to urinate, Difficulty starting urination, Poor urine stream, Dribbling after urinating, Unable to empty the bladder completely, Increased need to urinate at night
Common CausesCause of prostate enlargement is not clear, Changes in balance of sex hormones as men get older can be a possible cause
Risk FactorsIncreasing age especially above 40 years old, Family history of prostate problems especially in first-degree relatives and if these relatives have had early onset benign prostatic hyperplasia, Diabetes, Heart disease, Use of certain medications such as beta blockers and over-the-counter ephedrine-like compounds for cold and cough, Obesity, Lack of physical activity, Alcohol intake
Investigation TechniquesMedical history, Digital rectal examination, Urine tests to rule out urinary tract infection or other medical conditions, Blood test, Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) blood test, Urinary flow test, Postvoid residual volume test, Urodynamic studies, Transrectal ultrasound, Prostate biopsy, Cystoscopy
Treatment and PreventionLifestyle changes, Medications such as alpha blockers, 5-alpha reductase inhibitors, combination of these 2 drugs, tadalafil, Surgery such as transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP), transurethral incision of the prostate (TUIP), transurethral microwave thermotherapy (TUMT), transurethral needle ablation (TUNA), prostatectomy, Laser therapy, Prostatic urethral lift