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Epilepsy is a neurological disorder in which the brain activity becomes abnormal and results in recurrent seizures. It is a common problem affecting 1 person in 100. Epilepsy affects people of all age groups, gender, races, and ethnic backgrounds.

Signs and Symptoms

Uncontrolled jerking movements of the arms and legs, Short attention blackouts or no response, Staring spell, Temporary confusion, Loss of awareness or consciousness, Sudden feelings of anxiety, fear or deja vu, Unusual sleepiness and irritability when woken up, Loss of bladder control

Common Causes

Previous head injury, Prenatal injury to the brain due to poor nutrition or infection in mother, Developmental disorders such as neurofibromatosis and autism, Genetic factors, Brain conditions such as strokes or brain tumours, Infectious diseases such as viral encephalitis and meningitis

Risk Factors

Children and the elderly, History of seizure in childhood, Previous head injuries, Family history of epilepsy, Brain infections such as meningitis, Dementia, Stroke, and other vascular diseases, Recreational drug or alcohol abuse

Investigation Techniques

Medical history, Neurological examination, Blood tests to look for signs of infections or other conditions which may lead to seizures, Electroencephalogram (EEG), High-density EEG, Computerised tomography (CT) scan of the brain, Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain

Treatment and Prevention

Get adequate rest, Anti-epileptic medications such as valproate, benzodiazepines, carbamazepine, lamotrigine, and phenytoin, Surgery such as callosotomy and commissurotomy, Vagus nerve stimulation, Deep brain stimulation, Ketogenic diet
Information Updated on : Wed Feb 12 2020 16:04:04 GMT+0800 (Malaysia Time)
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