OverviewGastroesophageal reflux disease is a digestive disorder that happens when gastric juice reflux from the stomach into the esophagus. It is a common problem that affects people of all age groups.
Signs and SymptomsAcid regurgitation, Epigastric pain, Heartburn, Odynophagia (pain or difficulty when swallowing) with hot beverages or alcohol, Nausea, Bloating, Hypersalivation, Chronic sore throat, Hoarseness of voice or laryngitis, Cavities, Inflammation of the gums, Bad breath
Common CausesLoss of lower esophageal sphincter function resulting in frequent acid reflux
Risk FactorsBeing overweight or obese, Hiatal hernia, Being pregnant, Delayed stomach emptying, Connective tissue disorders such as scleroderma, Eating spicy and fatty food, Eating large meals, Eating close to bedtime or lying down right after a meal, Certain beverages such as coffee, carbonated drinks alcohol, Smoking, Usage of certain medications such as ibuprofen, aspirin and high blood pressure medications
Investigation TechniquesX-ray of the upper digestive system, Upper endoscopy with biopsy to examine the inside of the esophagus, Ambulatory acid (pH) probe test to monitor the amount of acid in the esophagus, Esophageal manometry to measure the pressure at the lower esophageal sphincter
Treatment and PreventionLifestyle changes such as weight loss, stop smoking, drink alcohol in moderation, avoid coffee, avoid large meals at night, Oral medications such as antacids, H2 receptor blockers, proton pump inhibitors, baclofen, Surgery such as total or partial fundoplication, partial gastrectomy, placement of Angelchik prosthesis, LINX treatment