OverviewPolycystic ovary syndrome is a condition that disrupts the normal hormone levels in the female. Women with this condition produce higher level of male hormones causing them several side effects such as irregular periods and most importantly, difficulty in getting pregnant (infertility).
Signs and SymptomsIrregular periods, Heavy bleedin, Hirsutism, Acne, Weight gain, Darkening of the skin, Diabetes, Sleep- related problems.
Common CausesAbnormal hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian (HPO) axis, Genetic Causes, Insulin Resistance, Increased insulin production, Low-grade inflammation, Excess Androgen
Risk FactorsFamily history of PCOS, Diabetes, Hirsutism, Infertility, Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome, Abnormal menstruation, Early menarche, Obesity, Genetic abnormalities
Investigation TechniquesPhysical exam, Blood pressure, Pelvic exam, Pelvic ultrasound (sonogram), thyroid function tests, serum prolactin levels, a free androgen index, Blood sugar level, Lipid profile, 24-hour urine sample for free cortisol and creatinine (To rule out Cushing's syndrome), Serum 17-hydroxyprogesterone levels (To exclude adrenal gland problem)
Treatment and PreventionLow dose Combined Oral Contraceptives, Clomiphene Citrate (for infertility), Combined Metformin & Letrozole, Encourage to go on diet and exercise regimen, Laparoscopic ovarian drilling
Psychological IssuesDepression, Stress