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Smoking Addiction


Smoking addiction is a condition in which people are addicted to the effects of nicotine. This occurs because nicotine is highly addictive. It is a common problem which can affect people of all ages.

Signs and Symptoms

Failure to stop smoking, Withdrawal symptoms such as cravings, irritability, difficulty concentrating, anxiety, anger and depressed mood, Unable to stop smoking despite having other health issues, Willing to give up other social activities in order to smoke

Common Causes

Due to chemical content in cigarettes such as nicotine- It can increase the release of neurotransmitters such as dopamine which helps to regulate a person's mood and behaviour

Risk Factors

Stressful or depressing situations, Genetic factors influencing how receptors on the brain cells react to high doses of nicotine, Prenatal exposure to nicotine, Age someone starts smoking, Having family members or friends who are heavy smokers, Alcohol or recreational drug abuse, Personal history of other mental health disorders for example depression or anxiety disorders

Investigation Techniques

Medical, psychiatric and social history, Physical examination , CAGE questionnaire, ‘Four Cs' test which looks at 4 categories namely compulsion, control, cutting down and consequences, Fagerström test for nicotine dependence, Comparison of symptoms to criteria in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5)

Treatment and Prevention

Nicotine replacement products such as nicotine patches, gums, lozenges, nasal sprays or inhalers, Non-nicotine medications such as bupripion, varenicline or nortriptyline, Individual or group counseling programme, Telephone counseling, Identify triggers and avoid them, Lifestyle changes such as eating healthy meals and exercising regularly
Information Updated on : Wed Feb 12 2020 16:04:06 GMT+0800 (Malaysia Time)
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