April 27, 2021 | Written By: Izzat Izzuddin
Human Immunodeficiency Virus or known as HIV is a very dangerous virus because it can destroy the human immune system and cause AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome). If the disease is not treated properly, it will lead to various serious complications and subsequently fatal. Read this article for a more detailed description of the complications of HIV.
Tuberculosis is a bacterial infection caused by Mycobacterium Tuberculosis. The bacteria mostly infected the human lungs, but it can also infect the other parts of the body such as the kidneys, brain and spine.
Among the symptoms that are commonly experienced when infected with TB bacteria are:
According to health experts, Tuberculosis is one of the leading causes of death among HIV patients. Therefore, it is very important to treat HIV with the right treatment at an early stage of the illness.
Candidiasis is a fungal infection that appears in the form of a thick white layer on parts of the body such as skin, nails, vagina, penis and mucosal layer in the mouth. If present in the mouth, it is known as Oral Thrush. The risk of being infected with this fungus is higher if you have HIV, if left untreated this infection will become severe as it can spread to other parts of the body.
3. Herpes Simplex Virus HSV
The possibility of being infected with HSV is high in HIV patients because they have a weak immune system. HSV can be transmitted to anyone and will usually cause a person to have sores on the mouth and genitals.
HIV patients who have been infected with herpes simplex will face problems because the lesions will be recurrent and occur frequently. In fact, it can also cause a bacterial infection in the respiratory tract (bronchus) or in the oesophagus and later on cause pneumonia.
4. Salmonella Septicemia
Salmonella is a very dangerous microorganism and usually can be found in contaminated food. This bacteria can cause disruption to the human digestive system and lead to diarrhoea and stomachache. But for HIV patients, these microorganisms can lead to more serious problems as they can spread to the bloodstream and subsequently causes a systemic infection known as Salmonella septicemia.
Pneumonia is a lung infection that can occur due to bacteria, viruses or fungi. The infection can be severe and deadly in HIV patients. Among the symptoms that can be experienced are:
Difficulty in breathing or shortness of breath
HIV patients are more likely to be infected with Toxoplasmosis. This is because HIV patients have a weak immune system. Toxoplasmosis is a disease that occurs because of a parasite known as Toxoplasma gondii and its carriers are cats, rats and other animals. When this parasite is successfully spread to humans, it can harm the eyes, heart, liver and lungs. If this parasite reaches the brain, it can cause a person to have seizures.
Cytomegalovirus Is a common virus that comes from the family of Herpes Virus. Most people will not realize that they have been infected with this virus because it is asymptomatic. However, the inactive virus that remains in the body can cause various complications to humans, especially for those who have a weak immune system such as HIV patients. Among the effects of cytomegalovirus on the body are:
Inflammation of the brain (encephalitis)
Inflammation of the eyes (retinitis)
Stomach pain (gastroenteritis)
A type of fungal infection that can occur because of contaminated food and beverages. For HIV patients, they will experience more serious symptoms such as:
9. Mycobacterium Avium Complex
A type of bacterial infection that usually occurs only in HIV patients because they have a weak immune system. This bacterial infection can become severe and cause pneumonia. If these bacteria enter the bloodstream, it can lead to death.
Untreated HIV infection will increase the risk of getting some types of cancer such as:
a) Kaposi Sarcoma - A type of cancer which is rare among non-HIV patients. This cancer will appear as blotches pink, purple or black on the skin. This cancer developed from the cells that line your blood vessels or lymph. Besides skin, it can also appear in other organs such as lungs and digestive tract.
b) Cervical Cancer - This cancer is developed in the cervix. If left untreated, it will spread to nearby tissues and organs.
c) Lymphoma - Cancer that affects white blood cells and lymph nodes. One of the important signs of this cancer is swelling of the lymph nodes.
11. Other Complications
a) Wasting syndrome - Untreated HIV/AIDS can cause a person to lose weight unintentionally and experience few symptoms such as diarrhoea, weakness and fever.
b) Mental Problems - HIV/AIDS can also lead to mental health disorders such as confusion, irritability, depression and anxiety. According to studies, HIV can also disrupt normal brain function and cause a person to develop dementia.
c) Liver Disease - This problem is one of the main complications that can occur in HIV patients such as Hepatitis B or Hepatitis C.
There are various effective methods to treat the symptoms of HIV and prevent the virus from further deteriorating the body. Therefore, you are advised to seek medical attention from a qualified doctor to help you in dealing with this problem. Treatment will be more effective if you take the medication consistently, change your lifestyle and do regular health checkups. Modern medical methods can control the symptoms and progression of this disease and prevent complications besides improving patients quality of life.
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